A brain hemorrhage can be caused by trauma or ailments that cause the cerebral blood vessels to break. There are 2 forms of brain hemorrhage – subarachnoid and intracerebral. If there is a disruption in the normal flow of blood to the brain cells, it can lead to cell death in a few minutes. Remember that the effects of a brain hemorrhage can be overwhelming.
Loss of cerebral blood flow
The brain requires continuous blood flow to supply the essential nutrients and oxygen to its cells for optimum functioning. If there is a ruptured blood vessel, it can cause blood to leak into the adjacent tissues. The regions of the brain supplied by the ruptured blood vessel experiences ischemia from lack of oxygen. The death of the cells leads to neurological issues.
Elevated intracranial pressure
Brain hemorrhage can cause an increase in the pressure within the brain. It is important to note that the brain is enclosed in the cranium which is a rigid capsule that keeps it safe.
The bleeding into the brain lowers oxygenation and causes swelling that increases the intracranial pressure (ICP). The elevated pressure makes it difficulty to move enough blood to the brain. If the increasing pressure could not be controlled, it can be deadly.
Altered neurological function
The effects of brain hemorrhage on the neurological function include
- Intense headache
- Reduced level of consciousness marked by confusion or loss of consciousness
- Loss of motor function
- Visual disruptions
Vasospasm is also an effect of brain hemorrhage which is characterized as constriction of the cerebral blood vessels. Since blood is irritating to the brain tissue and cerebral arteries, vasospasm of the blood vessels in the site of the bleeding occurs.